PCDForum Column #72,  Release Date April 20, 1994.

by Clarence Shubert

Almost everywhere in the world, traditional family structures are
disintegrating in the face of rapid urbanization. The pattern of a limited and
fragmented home life is having a devastating effect on family and community
systems. High rates of divorce, child abuse and neglect, teenage pregnancy,
violence, alcoholism, drug abuse, crime, and suicide are evident consequences.

In order to afford shelter, higher education for children and adequate
health care, both parents are forced to work outside the home. The family’s
primary functions of education, recreation, child care, entertainment, and food
production, preparation and consumption are left to the market and public
bureaucracies, creating a need for even more income to pay for basic necessities
and higher taxes. Children are sequentially cared for, if at all, by nurseries,
day-care centers and schools. Impoverished, single parent, female headed
households are becoming the norm.

Parents become providers and night guardians with little time, energy or
encouragement to do more than function as bread winners in the market. The
modern urban home becomes little more than a place to sleep and watch television
its most important characteristic its location in relation to work, school,
shops and other amenities. It is a stark contrast to the days of extended
families and the mutual support they traditionally provided.

The usual response to this breakdown is a call for more centralized,
publicly funded social services and police security, essentially to fill the gap
left by disintegrating family and community structures. There is another, less
obvious answer, however. Create cities that restore the functions of family and
community, while reducing family dependence on income from jobs that take
parents ever further from home for ever longer periods.

Obviously, the burdens of caring for children, the elderly and disabled
cannot entirely be shifted back to individual families. Neither can women be
expected to bear the full burden. Yet in many countries a strong and cohesive
family is seen as the natural and most desirable institution to care for
children, the disabled and the elderly. Families in turn need the support of
strong and cohesive communities. Such a perspective leads to a more holistic
approach to dealing with the accelerating social and environmental crises of
cities struggling to meet growing demands on already failing environmental,
waste disposal, transportation, energy, social service and water systems.

Increasing population densities are pressing the expansion of urbanization
and its attendant problems ever further into rural areas. What we now need is a
corresponding "ruralization" of urban areas, a new vision of cities
organized into networks of urban villages.

In this vision, each urban village would recycle its sewage, solid waste and
even air through fish ponds, gardens and green areas to sustainably produce much
of the food, clean water, fresh air and recreational spaces it requires. Urban
agriculture, aquaculture and the intensive recycling of wastes would provide new
sustainable livelihood opportunities, while renewing family and community ties,
allowing for greater sharing of family responsibilities among men and women, and
decentralizing urban management.

Working out of the home would once again become common, with traditional
cottage industries existing side-by-side with agricultural and waste recycling
activities, and the electronic cottage industries of the high technology age.
Family support services such as community-based daycare, family counseling,
schools, family health services, and multi-purpose community centers
particularly to serve youth, the elderly and children would be common, making
these integral community functions and sources of employment nearer to home.

There would continue to be a division of work and a diversity of lifestyles.
However, all households would become more involved in primary environmental
care. Recycling of household wastes would require separation within the home.
Community management and leadership would become more important as the urban
village takes on many of the functions now performed by central municipal
governments. Civic education and communal responsibilities would also become
more important. Many households would combine salaried employment with
subsistence food production, waste recycling, and voluntary community service
leading to a return to the multifunctional home.

The vision of the family-friendly city, with the home and its immediate
neighborhood once again the center of life, already exists in some pockets or
suburbs of many cities in Asia. Government policies need to proactively support
smaller neighborhood schools and health facilities, and recreation areas and
green spaces that also serve to recycle waste and produce fresh air, clean water
and food. Organizing cities around urban villages will require changes in the
nature of housing, services, and transportation. It will also require a
significant reorientation of municipal services systems to encourage and
facilitate greater commitment and involvement of people in management and
voluntary work within their communities.

Clarence Shubert is Senior Advisor, Urban Management Programme, Regional
Office for Asia and the Pacific, United Nations Centre for Human Settlements,
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. This column was prepared and disseminated by the
People-Centered Development Forum based on his article in Urban Voices No. 2,
February 1994.

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